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I frequently travel to the United States on a B-1 visa attending client meetings for my Canadian employer. Does this create a U.S. Income tax filing obligation?

Blog posted on by Evelyn Ackah in Cross Border Business, Crossing Borders Seamlessly and Cross-Border Business and U.S. Immigration

I frequently travel to the United States on a B-1 visa attending client meetings for my Canadian employer. Does this create a U.S. Income tax filing obligation?

This is a good question many don’t think to ask. After all, you are a Canadian tax resident, paid by a Canadian employer in Canadian dollars, so why would the IRS care about you? And how could 10 to 20 days of business meetings in the U.S. create a U.S. tax filing obligation? You aren’t “working” in the U.S., most definitely not, your B-1 visa does not allow this – it only allows for meetings.

U.S. domestic tax law requires that, if a non-U.S. taxpayer is performing services in the United States for a Canadian employer and the annual income exceeds $3,000 U.S. (based loosely on your daily rate multiplied by the number of days working in the U.S.), the Canadian employer has an obligation to report and withhold U.S. Federal tax on this income to the IRS (similar to how an employer reports payroll to CRA), not to mention possible U.S. state reporting and withholding obligations.

But reporting does not equal taxation. Article XV of the Canada - U.S. tax treaty is written to ensure that most business travelers, performing services in a host state (in this case, the United States) for their employers from their home state (Canada) are only to be subject to tax in their home country. This means that, in most situations, the income you earn while on those business trips in the United States is not taxable in the United States (note that this doesn’t exempt the income from being reportable). HOWEVER, in order to claim this treaty exemption in the United States, a personal U.S. tax return must be filed and this treaty position disclosed.

So, to recap:

  1. Performing services in the United States often creates an income tax reporting (and income tax withholding) obligation with the IRS for your employer or the payor for your services.
  2. The Canada – U.S. Income tax treaty provides an exemption from U.S. tax on these earnings.
  3. In order to claim the treaty exemption from withholding, an 8233 waiver must be filed with the IRS. In order to claim a treaty exemption from final U.S. tax, a U.S. tax return must be filed with the IRS along with treaty exemption.

These requirements involve a great deal of resources, coordination, and paper pushing – not to mention the pushback from employees. Despite the potential penalties and interest on the failure to report and withhold, many Canadian companies still choose to turn a blind eye to this issue.

Other Canadian employers however have found that once they attack the issue and manage through the first year, the reporting and compliance becomes easier, reducing the U.S. tax risk and exposure to the corporation and the employee significantly. The process of managing the enterprise and employee tax risk also identifies other significant and very relevant areas of concern such as immigration, security and insurance, cross border issues which can result in far more than just tax penalties and interest.

Citizen Abroad Tax Advisors assists Canadian employers with the assessment and management of the U.S. tax reporting and compliance for employees traveling to and working in the United States.

— Laura L. McLeman, CPA, CA, CPA (IL)


Education and professional credentials:

  • Chartered Professional Accountant (British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario), 2000
  • Certified Public Accountant (Illinois), 2013
  • Bachelor of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University, 1999
  • Member, Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants

Laura McLeman
Telephone: 613-825-1444
FAX: 1-866-778-5121
E-mail: laura@citizen-abroad.com


Evelyn Ackah

Founder/Managing Lawyer

Ms. Ackah is passionate about immigration law because it focuses on people and relationships, which are at the core of her personal values. Starting her legal career as a corporate/commercial ...

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I reached out to Ackah | Business Immigration Law when our company needed assistance for our business visa needs. The whole team is effective and efficient, the communication I received was extremely helpful in ensuring we had the right information for our employees travelling outside of Canada.

Evelyn Ackah walked me through the full process to ensure we were successful in our cross-border needs and her team was open and resourceful for all questions that arose. I received documents which outlined the information required to build our visa documentation. Once all documentation was gathered Evelyn and her team engaged with my team to ensure those who were travelling were fully prepared; in addition, Ackah Business Immigration Law also ensured a member of their team was on call for dates of travel, this assisted in my team knowing they had someone to turn to if needed during the procedure.

I would recommend Ackah Law to all businesses for their immigration needs and will continue to reach out when needed.

– F. Martens, Gryphon Oilfield Solutions

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